Considered by many to be the world’s greatest living scientist, Hawking was also a cosmologist, astronomer, mathematician and author of numerous books including the landmark “A Brief History of Time,” which has sold more than 10 million copies.
With fellow physicist Roger Penrose, Hawking merged Einstein’s theory of relativity with quantum theory to suggest that space and time would begin with the Big Bang and end in black holes. Hawking also discovered that black holes were not completely black but emit radiation and would likely eventually evaporate and disappear.
“A star just went out in the cosmos,” Lawrence Krauss, a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, wrote on Twitter.
“We have lost an amazing human being.”
Hawking suffered from ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
, a neurodegenerative disease also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease, which is usually fatal within a few years. He was diagnosed in 1963, when he was 21, and doctors initially gave him only a few years to live.
The disease left Hawking wheelchair-bound and paralyzed. He was able to move only a few fingers on one hand and was completely dependent on others or on technology for virtually everything — bathing, dressing, eating, even speech.
Hawking used a speech synthesizer that allowed him to speak in a computerized voice with an American accent.
“I try to lead as normal a life as possible, and not think about my condition, or regret the things it prevents me from doing, which are not that many,” he wrote on his website.
“I have been lucky that my condition has progressed more slowly than is often the case. But it shows that one need not lose hope.”
Hawking was married twice. He and his first wife, Jane Wilde, wed when he was still a graduate student and remained together for 30 years before divorcing in 1995. Hawking was later married for 11 years to Elaine Mason, one of his former nurses.
Hawking was born in Oxford, England, on what an auspicious date: January 8, 1942 — the 300th anniversary of the death of astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei.
In an exclusive interview with CNN in October 2008, Hawking said that if humans can survive the next 200 years and learn to live in space, then our future will be bright.
“I believe that the long-term future of the human race must be in space,” Hawking told CNN’s Becky Anderson.
“It will be difficult enough to avoid disaster on planet Earth in the next 100 years, let alone next thousand, or million. The human race shouldn’t have all its eggs in one basket, or on one planet. Let’s hope we can avoid dropping the basket until we have spread the load.”
At Cambridge, he held the position of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics — the prestigious post previously held by Sir Isaac Newton, widely considered one of the greatest scientists in modern history — for 30 years until 2009.
Yet Hawking once said if he had the chance to meet either Newton or Marilyn Monroe, he would opt for the movie star.
After stepping down, Hawking continued to work at the university as director of research at the Institute for Theoretical Cosmology. The following year, he co-authored “The Grand Design” with Leonard Mlodinow.
After the book was published in 2010, Hawking told CNN
that science can explain the universe without the need for a creator.
“Gravity and quantum theory caused universes to be created spontaneously out of nothing,” Hawking said in 2010. “God may exist, but science can explain the universe without the need for a creator.”
“Science is increasingly answering questions that used to be the province of religion,” he added.